11. Discuss the Pros and cons of capitation vs. FFS. *Capitation and FFS are quite opposite payment process which has its own pros and cons Capitation-payment made in advance to health care providers based on a number of persons assigned to them for a period of time but regardless of seeking treatment or not. Pros- 1) predictable costs and prefixed standard income – in the payers perspective the costs can be predictable which helps in better financial planning. Similarly, the payment is calculated and given based on a number of persons assigned, so the expected income for providers is standard.
As the cash flow is prefixed, health providers can plan better for effective services like investment in procuring new technology or EHR etc. 2) Prevent costly illness- in capitation, health providers are given great financial rewards in preventing illness rather than treating the illness that gives scope to prevent illness which might consume limited health resources. Cons-1) limits patients choice- in the patient perspective as the provider is prefixed and payment is done so the patient has to choose that provider without many choices. ) Over exploitation of services – as payment is made regardless of seeking treatment or not so patient approach doctor for medical attention disregard of severity, which causes exploitation of resources. Fee for service- as the name suggest this payment model is based on calculating prices for each and every individual service rather than bundled payment.
Pros-1) great scope to choose doctors- unlike capitation which narrows choosing the doctor, a fee for service provides great scope for opting any doctor and can change the doctor during treatment process at any time. ) Provide incentives to individual services as incentives are determined based on service so it will be the best option for government or provider to have more control over health outcomes. For example, a federal program which gives incentives for anti-hypertensive therapy by FFS will lead to the reduction in the incidence of hypertension-related illness.
Cons- 1) high expenses- FFS payment process is more expensive in terms of higher premiums, higher out of pocket costs or higher copays. Further insurers will reimburse after patient meet a certain high deductible price. ) Paperwork – FFS demands a lot of paperwork to be billed by a provider, detailing the service provided. 8. As a healthcare leader, discuss your approach in dealing with the increasing shortage of nursing personnel. Shortage of nursing personnel is mainly due to decreased entry to the nursing career and increased exit by the aging nursing population. Following measures might helpful to deal shortage1) Attraction of new nurses by various appealing policies- for example implementing sign in bonus, providing the bonus of 5000$ while recruiting even before salary.
Similarly allotting relocation coverages, like transportation costs, health coverage to family members, spouse job support etc. 2) Make sure to value and deal common problems encounter in a workplaceassigning nurse executives in each department to communicate with each and every nurse on daily basis to come up with encountered problems. 3) Implementation of performance appraisal systems- develop and implement a strict performance appraisal system like incentives to outstanding performance or most friendly service, rewards for nurses who reach the targeted services etc. ) Choosing the alternative to nursesmostly outpatient services demand limited nursing services so in place of regular nurses, physician assistants or medical assistants might helpful.
5) Implementing Retention strategies, providing flexible work schedule as per norms, redesign work among nurses such that elders are more assigned to guide young nurses, providing the certain degree of autonomy in the workplace etc. 7. How has social media impacted marketing, advertising and healthcare organizations in general? List some pros and cons. Social media has a great impact on marketing process of health care organization. rganization perspective – 1) most outreached to customer- with increased usage of social media, organization can be more informative to patients in regard to services provided, doctors available, procured technology, attained accreditations and certifications, discounts offered, health camps etc. 2) less expensive and more effective- unlike traditional marketing strategies of digital ads in television or radio or billboards, social media marketing by Facebook or Instagram or twitter or organization website is less expensive and is easy to maintain.
Consumer perspective- 1) easy to access- unlike in traditional way a person with common symptom can search by social media and can reach provider without much delay. 2) Better feedback about services- as each social media has an option to feedback about the service, a provider might be aware of feedback which helps a to improve service. Pros- more informative and faster way to reach patients, improves relations with patients by live chats etc. , helps to reorganize services by identifying flaws through feedback.
Cons- easy for falsified ratings- for example, an urgent care facility offers 5$ coupon for writing the good review in social media. Not trustworthy-intentional, inappropriate ratings and reviews might damage the organization brand. 2. As a healthcare manager, discuss your approach to employee evaluation process. Think of the entire year. Employee evaluation process in health care organization1) How well services are offered to patients ? – as patients are the ultimate customers in health care business, serving them with care and helping the patients to come out of illness is the crucial indicator in an evaluation process. ) Valuing feedback from patients- after services are provided each patient has to give feedback on each every individual service like nursing services or physician spending of quality time etc. 3) How well an employee is tuned to organization values and strategies- the different organization has different strategies in serving patients so evaluation on basis of how well an employee is following organization beliefs, values or cost cutting strategies etc.
4) Based on certain performance indicators – considering performance indicators like average length of stay, average waiting time for a physician, comparing actual performance with standard values, readmission rates, how well quality measures are implemented etc. 5) Upgrade to latest technology and trends-as health care is evolving day by day, keeping pace with latest trends plays key for success. So evaluation based on how well physicians or nurses are participating in CME- continuing medical education or up gradation to ICD 10 codes etc. will count. . List and briefly discuss three challenges of an increasing diverse staff and community. Diversity in workplace refers to hiring staff regardless of age group or sex or nationality or ethnicity etc. Challenges with diversity among working staff are
1) Consumes More resources in training due to Reluctance in change – diversity ensures no uniformity among staff members so each employee perception towards work is different and training them to work under organizational mission and values is tough which requires more mandatory training sessions and time. ) Difficulties in communication- diversity ensures staff from various nationals or ethnicities so language barrier or cultural barrier surely is a challenge for effective communication. Further less effective communication hinders the flow of information from board to staff and failure to identify potential problems encountered in a workplace which may lead to increase in employee turnover. 3) More chances of conflicts among employees- due to diversity employees might find great differences with coworkers which may affect the overall functioning of an organization. . Describe the role of leadership in implementing and managing a diverse organization. Managing diversity in organization as a leader
1) Improves communication among employees and with organization board- formulate a most commonly acceptable communication method and always maintain open door policy to encourage employees to come up with problems related to work or non-work or even diversity issues. 2) Improves team buildup and coordination-organizing periodical meetings or team outs helps to encourage friendship which builds coordination among employees. 3) Implementing performance appraisal systems-effectively communicate performance appraisals and implementing them by rewards or awards will act as the benchmark for other employees. 4) Involving diverse staff in board meetings- involving diverse staff members in board meetings and valuing their ideas will improve employee responsibility towards the organization and reduces employee turnover. 5) Conflicts resolving strategies- as a leader be prepared to expect and handle more conflicts due to cultural variations. Resolving them smoothly in time to ensure good productivity.